ASCAS
Association 
of Small Collectors
of Antique Silver ASSOCIATION OF SMALL COLLECTORS OF ANTIQUE SILVER
ASCAS
article # 7
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by Giorgio Busetto


HALLMARKS OF RUSSIAN SILVERSMITHS

The Russian standard for silver was based on ' zolotnik '. The name comes from 'zoloto' meaning gold. The unit originated as the weight of a gold coin of the same name which circulated as late as 11th century in Kievan Rus. Originally, a zolotnik represented a 1/96 of a pound, later 1/72 of a pound. In the metric system, one zolotnik equals 4,266 grams, 96 zolotniks equal one Russian pound.
Converting the Russian marks to sterling values, we obtain the following comparisons in silver purity degree:

84 zol. = 875/1000
88 zol. = 916,6/1000
91 zol. = 947,9/1000

Most of silversmith's touch marks are in cyrillic alphabet.
Here is the Russian cyrillic alphabet and the table of comparison with latin alphabet.

Russian cyrillic alphabet
cyrillic printed and cursive
roman
cyrillic name

a

ah

b

beh

v

vey

g

gey

d

dey

e

yey

Ž

yaw

zh

zheh

z

zey

i

ee

ee kratkoye

k

kah

l

el

m

em

n

en

o

aw

p

pey

r

ehr

s

ess

t

tey

u

oo

f

ef

kh

khah

ts

tseh

ch

cheh

sh

shah

shch

shchah

"

myakhky znak

eh oborawtnoyeeh

yoo

yah


Russian silversmiths used a touch mark with the initial letters of first and last name in Cyrillic. Seldom full name or latin letters were used.
Postnikova-Loseva # and P-L #:
ref. # on 'Gold and silver manifacture in Russia XV-XX century' by Postnikova-Loseva and others (2003)

touch mark
(click for image)
silversmith
A? ?
A?Z ?(cyr.)
AA (cyr.) Andrež Andreev Aleksandrov (P-L # 2140)
AA (cyr.) Andrež Andreev Aleksandrov (P-L # 2140)
AA (cyr.) Aleksandr Afanasbev (P-L # 2141)
AA (cyr.) Aleksež Afanasbev (Postnikova-Loseva #2143)
AAK al'derman Aleksež Kosiýrev (1762-1791) (P-L # 2129)
AB (cyr.) Andrež Stepanovich Bragin (P-L # 1198)
AD (cyr.)Aleksandr Vasilbev Domnin (P-L # 768)
AD (cyr.) Andrež Dementbev (Postnikova-Loseva #2168)
A.DREISHPUN (cyr.)
AE (cyr.) Egorov Aleksandr Sergeev (P-L #2171)
AE (cyr.) Egorov Aleksandr Sergeev (P-L #2172)
AE (cyr.)
AFP (cyr.)Alderman Fedor Petrov(P-L #2133)
AFP (cyr.) alderman Fedor Petrov (P-L #2133)
AFRK (cyr.) unidentified (Postnikova-Loseva #612)
AK (cyr. ?)
AK (cyr.) Antip Ivanovich Kuzmichev (P-L # 2195)
AK (cyr. ?) Alexei Fyodorovich Kitovsky
AKh (cyr.) unidentified (P-L # 2255)
AL unidentified
AM (cyr.) Aleksandr Alekseev Mukhin (P-L #2209)
AN (cyr.) Anders Johan Navalinen (P-L #1483)
AOP (cyr.) alderman AOP (Postnikova-Loseva # 2136)
AP (cyr.)
AR (cyr.) unidentified (Postnikova-Loseva # 2235)
AS (cyr.) Aleksež V. Stepanov (Postnikova-Loseva # 2243)
ASh (cyr.)
AV (cyr.) A. Vassiliev (Postnikova-Loseva # 2154)
AV (cyr.) unidentified (Postnikova-Loseva # 2152)
AV (cyr.) Andrež Vilbgelbm Vekman (P-L # 2155)
AV (cyr.) Andrež Vilbgelm Vekman (P-L #2156)
AVP (cyr.) Aleksež Vasilbev Polozov(P-L #2159)
AVP (cyr.) Aleksež Vasilbev Polozov (P-L # 2159)
AWW Andrež Vilbgelmovich Bekman (Postnikova-Loseva #3023)
AZ (cyr.) AZ (unidentified) (P-L #1205) for BERGSTROM
BMA Ashmarin Basiliž Matveevich (P-L # 2321)
BOLIN Bolin (Postnikova-Loseva # 3024)
BZM BM (cyr.) unidentified (Postnikova-Loseva # 722)
CF Karl K. Fischer (Postnikova-Loseva # 1523)
ChO (cyr.)
CK unidentified
CM Carl Morgenroth (Postnikova-Loseva # 1548)
CMSKarl Magnus Stahle (Postnikova-Loseva # 1550)
DI (cyr.)Dmitriž Nikolaevich Nikolaev (P-L #2420)
DM (cyr.) unidentified (P-L #2417)
DN (cyr.) D.P. Nikitin (Postnikova-Loseva #2421)
EA (cyr.)
EK Erik August Kollin (Postnikova-Loseva #1441)
EK (cyr.) Erik August Kollin (Postnikova-Loseva # 1441)
for Ivan Ekimovich Morozov (Postnikova-Loseva # 1344)
EK Erik Kollin ?
EKK (cyr.) (Postnikova-Loseva # 2446)
EMK (lat.) unidentified (Postnikova-Loseva # 1275)
FABERGE (cyr.) AE for Karl Faberzhe (P-L #1421)
FABERGE (cyr.) Anders Johan Navalinen (P-L #1483) for Faberzhe (P-L #1421)
FGR (lat.)
FP (cyr.) Feodosiž Ivanovich Pekin (P-L #2971)
FR (cyr.) Fedor Ruckert
FWS Wennestrom O.F.
GGL (cyr.) Girshi Gaselevich Lizerin (P-L # 2366)
GK (cyr.) Gustav Gustavovich Klingert (P-L #2374)
GK Gustav Gustavovich Klingert (Postnikova-Loseva # 3035)
GK unidentified
GO Gustav Magnus Akerblom (Postnikova-Loseva # 1656)
GP (cyr.)
GRACHEV (cyr.) Mikail Grachev and others(P-L #1237)
GS (cyr.) Grigoriž Ivanov Serebrnikov (P-L # 2386)
GUBKIN (cyr.) Ivan Semenovich Gubkin (P-L #2395)
IA (cyr.)
IA Ivan Alekseevich Alekseev (Postnikova-Loseva #2537)
IANTZEN Christian Andreas Iantzen (P-L # 1691)
IEZ (cyr.) (Postnikova-Loseva # 615)
IF (cyr) Ivan Ivanovich Futikin (Postnikova-Loseva # 2526)
IF (cyr.) Ivan Ivanovich Futikin (Postnikova-Loseva # 2526)
IF (cyr) Ivan Evstfbev Fedotov (Postnikova-Loseva # 947)
IFA (cyr.) Ivan Fedorovich Andreev (P-L #2529)
IFA Johann Fridrik Akerblom (Postnikova-Loseva # 1707)
IG (cyr.) Ivan Semenovich Gubkin (P-L #2483)
IG (cyr.) Ivan Semenovich Gubkin (P-L #2483)
IG (cyr.)Ivan Semenovich Gubkin (P-L # 2483)
IK (cyr.) Ivan Kaltikov (Postnikova-Loseva # 2494)
IKh (cyr.) Ivan Petrovich Khlebnikov (P-L # 1298)
IKh (cyr.)
IKh (cyr.)
IO Johann Fridrik Akerblom (Postnikova-Loseva #1740)
Iu.RADINOVICH (cyr.) Iu. Radinovich (P-L # 220)
IW Johan Warjus (Postnikova-Loseva # 1753)
IZM IM (cyr.) Ivan Zinovbev Manilov (P-L # 955)
JAG J A Goldman
JR (lat,)
KHLEBNIKOV (cyr.) Ivan Petrovich Khlebnikov (P-L # 2983)
KHLEBNIKOV (cyr.)Sm. Khlebnikov (P-L # 1436a)
KHLEBNIKOV (cyr.) Sm. Khlebnikov (P-L # 1436a)
KHLEBNIKOV (cyr.) Ivan Petrovich Klebnikov (Postnikova-Loseva #2983)
KLINGERT (cyr.) Gustav Gustavovich Klingert (P-L #3046)
KORDES (cyr.) Aleksander Kordes (Postnikova-Loseva #1775)
KP (cyr.) Konstantin Iakovlevich Pets (P-L #2601)
KS (cyr.) Konstantin Illarionovich Skvortsov (P-L #2602)
KV (cyr.) Karl Verlin (Postnikova-Loseva # 1307)
KURLYUKOV (cyr.) Orest Fedorovich Kurliukov (P-L #2765)
LG (cyr.) for Ia. S. GoppŤ
LIuBAVIN (cyr.)AleksandrBenedictovich Liubavin (P-L #1329)
LO unidentified
MD (cyr.) M. Dmitriev (Postnikova-Loseva #2643)
M.GOLBDSMID (cyr.) M. Golbdsmid (P-L #195)
MI (cyr.) Mikail Iakovlevich Isakov (P-L #1335)
MK Mikhail Mikhailovich Karpinskiž (Postnikova-Loseva #2659)
MK Mathias Henrik Kilpeleinen (Postnikova-Loseva #1793)
MK unidentified (Postnikova-Loseva # 3168)
MKZ (cyr.) Maksim Kuzbmin Zolotarev (P-L #547)
MM (cyr.) Mikhail Vasilbevich Maslov (P-L # 2665)
MOROZOV (cyr.) Vasiliž Iv. Kangin
for Ivan Ekimovich Morozov (Postnikova-Loseva #1343)
MP (cyr.) Dmitriž Aleksandrov Pastukhov (P-L # 997) for Faberzhe (Postnikova-Loseva # 1319)
MP unidentified
MP Mikail Pivert (Postnikova-Loseva #3048)
MPSh (cyr.) unidentified (Postnikova-Loseva # 3723)
MS (cyr.) Mariža Vasilbevna Semenova (P-L # 2681)
MT Michael Jakovlevich Tarasov (P-L # 2687)
MV (cyr.) unidentified master (Postnikova-Loseva # 2632)
M.V.GRINSHTEIN (cyr.) M.V. Grinshtein (P-L # 3633)
MZ (cyr.) Mikhail Zorin? (Postnikova-Loseva #2421)
NA (cyr.) Nikolaž Vasilievich Alexeev (P-L #2710)
NA Nikolaiž Vasilbevich Alekseev (P-L #2711)
NG (cyr.)
NP (cyr.) Nikolai Pavlovich Pavlov (P-L # 2742)
NR (cyr.)
NS (cyr.) Nik.Fed.Strulev (Postnikova-Loseva #2748)
NZ (cyr.) Nikanov Zolotov (Postnikova-Loseva # 1013)
OM Otto Makselius (Postnikova-Loseva # 1372)
OP (cyr.) Pavel Akimov Ovchinnikov (Postnikova-Loseva #2826/2827)
OSTROCHO..KI Ostrocho..ki
P.OVCHINNIKOV P.Ovchinnikov (P-L #2827)
OWP (lat.)
PA (cyr.) Petr Abrosimov (Postinikova-Loseva # 2776)
PG (cyr.)
PJS unidentified master(Postnikova-Loseva #1827)
PM unidentified master(Postnikova-Loseva #648)
PN (cyr.) Prokopižj Akim Nikitin (Postnikova-Loseva # 2824)
POSTNIKOV (cyr.) Andrež Mik. Postnikov (P-L # 2232)
RA (cyr.) Roman Aristarkhov (Postinikova-Loseva # 2848)
RA (cyr.) Roman Aristarkhov (Postinikova-Loseva # 2849)
RL (lat.)
RM Richard Muller (Postnikova-Loseva # 3377)
R&O Eduard Radus (Postnikova-Loseva # 3564)
SAG (cyr.)
SAMOSHIN (cyr.)Egor(Georgiž)Tarasovich Samoshin(P-L#2390)
SAZIKOV (cyr.) Pavel Fedorovich Sazikov (P-L #1401)
SF Samuel Filiander (Postnikova-Loseva # 1852)
SKARLAT B. Shkarlat
SH.IALOVTSIN (cyr.) SH. Ialovtsin (Postnikova-Loseva #218)
SHKARLAT (cyr.) B. Shkarlat
SKL (cyr.) Stepan Kuzmich Levin (P-L # 2882)
SKL (cyr.) Stepan Kuzmich Levin (P-L # 2882)
SKP (cyr.)
SN (cyr.) Sergež Ivanovich Nazarov (P-L #2892)
SPI (cyr.)
SS (cyr.) S.Stroganov (Postnikova-Loseva #2909)
SS (cyr.) S.Stroganov (Postnikova-Loseva #2909)
SW Stephan Wakeva (Postnikova-Loseva #1860)
SWINARSKI M. Swinarski
TG (lat.)
TI (cyr.) Timofež Ilbin (Postnikova-Loseva # 2929)
TND + AT Tiflis beginning XIX century
TS Thomas Sokha (Postnikova-Loseva # 1874)
VA (cyr.) XVIII cent.
VD (cyr.) Vasiliž Dmtrev (Postnikova-Loseva # 2296)
VK (cyr.) Vasiliž Iv.Kangin (Postnikova-Loseva #1244)
VKhTM (cyr.) (All Russian Arts and Crafts Workshops)
VMA (cyr.) Vasiliž Mikažlovich Ashchmarin(P-L #2320)
VR (cyr.) Vasiliž Egorovich Rukavishnikov (P-L #2337)
VS (cyr.) Vasiliž S. Semenov (Postnikova-Loseva # 2339)
VTS (cyr.) V.T. Sokolov (Postnikova-Loseva # 2348)
YaA (cyr.)
YaB (cyr.) Yakov Alekseev Borisov (P-L #2987)
YaR (cyr.) Yakov Mikhažlovich Rozen (P-L # 1448)
WH (lat.)
ZK (cyr.)
1A 1 Artel (Postnikova-Loseva # 3067)
1MA 1 Artel (Postnikova-Loseva # 3062)
2A 2 Artel (Postnikova-Loseva # 3064 ?)
5A 5 Artel (Postnikova-Loseva # 3068)
11A 11 Artel (Postnikova-Loseva #3073)
13A 13 Artel (Postnikova-Loseva #3074)
? ADLEunidentified
?Z ? (cyr.)
this is an abstract from a wider study of Giorgio Busetto on Russian silver hallmarking (silversmiths, assayers, town marks), available on the web clicking here
Giorgio Busetto - © 2004 -