|by Dr. David
N. Nikogosyan, Bonn, Germany
(click on photos to enlarge image)
MARKS OF FRENCH SILVER-PLATED CUTLERY IN THE XIXth
CHRISTOFLE , VEUVE CHARLES HALPHEN, GOMBAULT-DESCLERCS
& MANUFACTURE DE L'ALFÉNIDE
Christofle silver-plated cutlery.
So far I was not interested by the marks of silver-plated
cutlery. However, the early pieces of Christofle cutlery seem to
be remarkable. First of all, they are excellently designed.
Second, they are convenient, beautiful and robust. Third, they
are self-documented, as every piece is marked by its year of
production. And, fourth, they are world-wide spread. It should
be reminded that around 1844 the Christofle company pioneered
the mass production of silver-plated cutlery and continued until
at least 1930. As a result nowadays you can find Christofle
cutlery from the XIXth century practically everywhere on the
globe, in any antiques shop or on any flea market. In addition,
many other French and foreign jewellery firms, producing
silver-plated cutlery, copied the pieces of Christofle cutlery.
I can easily mention a dozen of European jewellery firms,
issuing silver-plated cutlery "à la Christofle cutlery", amongst
them the French firms Ercuis, Halphen, Desclercs, Frenais, the
German companies WMF, August Wellner Soehne, Bohrmann, Hartmann,
Henniger, the Austro-Hungarian factories Arthur Krupp Berndorf,
Herrmann, the Russian foundries (situated in Warsaw) Fraget and
Norblin and many others.
In this paper I will describe the marks used by Christofle and
his partner companies Halphen, Gombault-Desclercs and
Manufacture de L'Alfenide on spoons and forks during the XIXth
century. Some of the marks are published for the first time. I
had to omit the cutlery marks used on the knives as such pieces
are rather rare and absent in my collection.
In Figure 1 one can see one of most successful (and popular)
models from Christofle cutlery. It is a so-called "Filet" (or "Chinon")
model. In Germany this model was known as "Augsburger Faden" and
in England as "Fiddle & Thread". It should be noted that the
same design was used in France well before the Christofle epoch,
however, at that time it was produced from sterling silver and
of course in much smaller quantities.
Fig.1. "Filet" (or "Chinon") model of Christofle
cutlery. Above: a picture from the Manufacture
de L'Alfénide catalogue, 1891, below: photos of the
items from my collection.
The history of the Christofle jewellery firm is well
documented [1,2]. Much less information is available on its
partners Charles Halphen, Gombault-Desclercs and Manufacture de
Gombault-Desclercs, Charles Halphen and Manufacture de L'Alfénide
From the technological point of view, all history of
silver-plating is related to the research & development of a
suitable base metal for silver deposition. In the beginning of
the XIXth century it was the permanent search for a cheap
silver-like base metal for silver deposition, the use of which
would not change significantly the appearance of the product
after the wearing away of the thin external silver layer. Such
metal (nickel-copper-zinc alloy) was found in the twenties/thirties
years of the XIXth century simultaneously in a number of
European countries, with each inventor proposing its own
slightly different composition of the alloy. The names of the
alloys were also different (Argentan, Neusilber, Alpacca, etc.).
The first patent for silver-like metal was given in France on
22nd of June 1827 to Maillot and Chorier for their alloy
Maillechort (25% nickel, 50% copper and 25% zinc), invented as
early as 1819.
Gombault, one of the oldest (and nearly forgotten!) French
silver plate companies, was founded in 1826 . This foundry
pioneered the production of the so-called Gombault metal (a base
metal for silver plating, i.e, a kind of nickel silver), which
is a nickel-copper alloy with small additions of zinc, iron and
tin . Its mark for such unsilvered products, the inscription
"GOMBAULT", was in use until 1931.
Some successful Gombault products, made from "highly-polished
silver-like metal", included coffee-pots (cafetières), hot
chocolade pots (chocolatières) and punch bowls (bols à punch).
But especially popular were the flat spoons with numerous holes
(cuillers à absinthe), used during the absinthe consumption for
the so-called "fire ritual". First, the sugar cube saturated
with absinthe was put on the spoon above the glass containing
the absinthe drink. After that, the sugar cube was set on fire
and started to melt into the absinthe, thus improving
the bitter taste of the drink.
The Gombault firm also produced silver-plated tableware, but
only in cooperation with other French silversmith companies. Its
common partner for silver plating was the Desclercs company.
Therefore, these two companies are often mentioned together as
one entity, the so-called Maison Gombault-Desclercs (Gombault-Desclercs
holding). For marking of such joint production both marks of
Gombault (for marking the base metal) and Desclercs (for marking
the silver deposition) were used. In 1866, the
Gombault-Desclercs company became bankrupt and was absorbed by
the Halphen firm. Later, being a part of the Veuve Charles
Halphen (Widow of Charles Halphen) company, it still continued
to use its own mark.
The Paris jewellery firm Halphen was created in 1850 by two
brothers, Maurice and Charles Halphen . After three years,
Maurice Halphen left the business, and the firm was renamed as
C. Halphen et Cie (Charles Halpen and Co.) with Charles
Christofle being a principal shareholder. The main product of
this enterprise was the silver-plated cutlery. As a base metal
for silver-plating, home-made Alfénide metal, a
copper-zinc-nickel-iron alloy (with component relative
compositions of 59:30:10:1, respectively) was used. Clearly, the
alloy name was derived from the name of the company owner. The
Christofle firm was vitally interested in such cooperation as,
up to 1878, it could not manufacture any silver-like metal for
subsequent silvering and was forced to use brass as a base metal
in most of its products.
Besides, since 1853, a new industrial process allowing the
fabrication of huge series of cutlery pieces before the
silvering, invented by Français Levallois, was applied on the
Charles Haplhen foundry . On the opposite, the Christofle's
cutlery was made one by one. Since this new production method
required a heavy financial investment, Christofle signed a
special cooperation agreement with Halphen. According to this
contract, Halphen and Christofle used the following production
scheme: first Christofle designed the future objects, then
Halphen mass-produced them from the Alfénide metal, after that
the objects were silver-plated by Christofle, using the galvanic
deposition of precious metal. The final product bore the
Christofle mark of silvering, the inscription CHRISTOFLE, the
box with the inscription ALFÉNIDE, indicating the base metal,
and the box with the year of production. There was no mention of
the Halphen company.
At the beginning the Halphen firm was rather successful. In
1866, Halphen bought the Maison Desclercs-Gombault. It is
unknown when he died. Since around 1877 his firm was guided by
the Veuve Charles Halphen (the widow of Charles Halphen, her
exact name is also unknown). The name of Charles Halphen foundry
was changed to "Couverts Alfénide, Orfévrerie Christofle et
Veuve Charles Halphen" (Fig.2).
Fig.2. Fragment of an advertisement of the Veuve
Charles Halphen Factory (before 1878).
On 17 March 1877, the Veuve Charles Halphen registered the
famous "tête de bouc" (goat head) mark with the initials of her
husband  and her factory, situated at 4, rue d'Hauteville,
Paris, started its own production of the silver-plated
hollowware of rather elaborated design. Over the next eleven
years about 90,000 "large" hollowware items were to be
manufactured, which corresponds to the mean productivity of
8,000 items per year. For comparison, the mean productivity of
Christofle in the same time was about 6 times larger.
Meanwhile, in 1877, Christofle bought the bankrupt firm "Couverts
de Méry", which produced its own base metal "Blanc Méry" (White
Méry, named from Méry-sur-Oise, the place situated in the
Seine-et-Oise region of France) with subsequent silver-plating,
and hired the former boss of "Couverts de Méry", the talented
jeweller and experienced manager Félix Chéron (Fig.3).
Fig.3. Fragment of an advertisement of the
Couverts de Méry company.
In 1878, Christofle opened a new giant factory in
Saint-Denis near Paris (Usine de Saint-Denis) , which
extracted nickel metal from the nickel ore brought from New
Caledonia (Nouvelle Calédonie). This allowed Christofle to
produce its own base metal for silver plating, called "Metal
Blanc" (White Metal). The latter circumstance explains why, in
the same year, Christofle broke its relations with Veuve Charles
Halphen: there was no need for Alfénide after the development of
its own silver-like metal. Meanwhile, the firm of Veuve Charles
Halphen was transformed to "Société Anonyme des Couverts
Alfénide" (sometimes before 1886) and corresponding shares were
issued (Fig.4). However, such transformation did not save the
company from bankruptcy.
Fig.4. Share No.2203 issued by the Société
Anonyme des Couverts Alfénide on
6th February 1886 (above) and corresponding coupons
for the year 1908 (below).
In 1888 Christofle bought the Halphen and Gombault-Desclercs
companies. However, rather than integrating this acquisition,
Christofle allowed it to continue as a separate entity. They
were joined with the remains of "Couverts de Méry" firm under
the new name "Manufacture de l'Alfénide" and with the new boss,
the afore-mentioned Félix Chéron. This information is taken from
the catalogue of Manufacture de L'Alfénide, issued in 1891 .
Though the name of Desclercs company is mentioned on the title
list, no products of this firm are described in this catalogue.
It follows that to that time the Desclercs company terminated
fully its production.
Being inside the new firm, both Halphen and Gombault companies
kept their own marks. However, under the patronage of Félix
Chéron the Halphen's goat mark was slightly modified (the
initials "C" and "H" for Charles Halphen were removed, and a
part of the mark have been lined, see below) and used both for
hollow ware and cutlery. What was even more unexpected was that
the silver-plated hollow ware products made by "Manufacture de
l'Alfénide" continued the original numbering introduced by Veuve
Charles Halphen in 1877. Such ordinal numeration was kept going
until 1931, the year of major restructuring inside the
Christofle firm . This finding allows the dating of each
numerated silver-plated hollow ware item made by Veuve Charles
Halphen, Gombault or Manufacture de l'Alfénide .
At the beginning of the XXth century Manufacture de L'Alfenide
became extremely fashionable due to the appearance of new Art
Nouveau products under the brand GALLIA. This brand inherited
the above-mentioned Halphen's goat mark and used it until 1931
Christofle cutlery marks used in the period c.1844-c.1859 (silver-plated
All the silver-plated spoons and forks, issued between c.1844
and c.1859, possess three obligatory marks, set along the
central part of the cutlery item (Fig.5).
Fig.5. Disposition of marks on silver-plated
Christofle cutlery produced between c.1844 and
Let us describe these marks, starting from the one placed
further from the handle:
1) The "CC" oval mark (Fig.6). It contains four stars, two
capital "C" letters (initials for "Charles Christofle"), between
them a balance and a bee in the center above two palm-like
branches. All mentioned elements are also characteristic for
Christofle hollow ware products . In the case of cutlery the
oval mark contains in addition a two-digit number (between the
two plates of the balance), referring to the amount of silver
(in grams), used for the production of two dozen pieces of cutlery.
For the above-mentioned period, Christofle used 72 grams of
silver for the silvering of twenty four spoons (or twenty four forks). It
should be emphasized that this amount refers only to standard
serving forks and spoons, having 20.6-21.9 cm in length. Smaller
pieces of cutlery (dessert forks and spoons and coffee spoons)
needed less silver. The mean size of the oval is 2.1 mm x 3.6 mm
(for nine different pieces of cutlery);
Fig.6. The oval "CC" mark used on silver-plated
between c.1844 and c.1859. The two-digit number (72)
the amount of silver used for the production of two
dozen of cutlery pieces.
2) The year of production (two last digits) was put in a
lozenge-shaped box (Fig.7). The mean size of the box (two
diagonals) is 2.1 mm x 3.4 mm (for eleven different pieces of
Fig.7. The production year marking on
silver-plated Christofle cutlery between c.1844 and
3) The inscription CHRISTOFLE in a rectangular cartouche
with the rounded corners (Fig.8). The mean length of the
inscription is 3.3 mm (for 8 different pieces of cutlery).
Fig.8. The inscription CHRISTOFLE in a
cartouche with rounded corners.
Recently, I was lucky to discover an additional mark set on
two forks, issued in 1847 (Fig.9). It is an oval with the
profile of a man head.
Fig. 9. Disposition of an additional mark.
Comparing this profile (Fig.10) with an early photo (daguerreotype)
of Christofle, taken in 1851-1852, one can note an undoubted
likeness. So this profile could represent the 42-year old
Charles Christofle! To confirm this hypothesis, as well as to
find the reason why this profile was put on Christofle cutlery
in 1847, more research is necessary.
Fig.10. A profile put inside the oval mark (left)
and the photograph of Christofle (right).
It should be kept in mind that, before 1855, all
silver-plated cutlery, produced by Christofle, used brass as
base metal for silvering. In 1855 Christofle signed an agreement
with Halphen and started to produce cutlery made from the
silver-plated Alfénide metal. As a result the number of cutlery
made from silver-plated brass decreased drastically. Though the
1862 Christofle Catalogue  still mentions the mark for
silver-plated brass, I never met any cutlery pieces marked in
such way after 1859. Probably, they were produced in small
quantities or did not exist at all.
Christofle cutlery marks used in the period c.1855-1878 (silver-plated
According to new laws imposed by the French government, the
marks for silver-plated ware had to be changed. Therefore, all
the Christofle marks for silver-plated Alfénide cutlery could be
divided into two groups, before and after 1862.
Marks used before 1862.
The silver-plated spoons and forks, issued by Christofle
between c.1855 and c.1862, possess three obligatory marks. We
will describe these marks, starting from the one most distant
from the handle:
1) The lozenge-shaped box with the inscription ALFÉNIDE, on two
lines (Fig.11), was used for the designation of the silver-like
base metal. The mean size of the box (two diagonals) is 1.6 mm x
4.3 mm (for three different pieces of cutlery);
Fig.11. The lozenge-shaped box with the
2) The "CC" oval mark (Fig.12) corresponds to the one used
before c.1855 (see above). For the period between c.1855 and
1862, Christofle used again 72 grams of silver for the silvering
of twenty four standard spoons (or twenty four forks). The length of three
spoons at my disposal varies between 21.5 cm and 21.7 cm. The
mean size of the oval is 2.0 mm x 3.6 mm (for three different
pieces of cutlery);
Fig.12. The oval "CC" mark used on silver-plated
between c.1855 and c.1862. The two-digit number (72)
the amount of silver used for the production of two
dozen of cutlery pieces.
3) For the time period c.1855-1859, the information about
the production year (two last digits) was set in a
lozenge-shaped box as above (Fig.13, left). The size of the box
(two diagonals) is 1.9 mm x 3.6 mm (for one piece of cutlery in
my possession). Starting from 1860, Christofle used the
rectangular box for this purpose (Fig.13, right) with size of
1.7 mm x 2.1 mm (for two pieces of cutlery at my disposal).
Fig.13. The production year marking on
silver-plated Christofle cutlery between c.1855 and
Marks used after 1862.
From 1862, according to the new laws, some changes in marks
of silver-plated cutlery were incorporated. We will describe
these new marks, starting from the one most distant from the
1) The rectangular box with the inscription ALFÉNIDE, on two
lines, was used for the designation of the silver-like base
metal (Fig.14). The size of the box varies between 1.7 mm x 2.1
mm and 2.2 mm x 2.6 mm (for ten different pieces of cutlery);
Fig.14. The box with the inscription ALFÉNIDE,
used between 1862 and 1877. Note
two versions of writing the fourth letter in the
inscription, the second one is rarer.
2) The "CC" oval mark is now set in a square box (Fig.15).
The bee image disappears (cf. Figs.6,12), instead a rosette
image was used. This correlates with my earlier findings on
marks of Christofle hollow ware . For the period between 1862 and 1868,
Christofle used 80 grams of silver for the silvering of twenty four spoons (or
twenty four forks). Since 1868, the amount of silver used for the silvering of
two dozen of pieces was raised up to 84 grams.
Again we mean the silvering of standard serving
spoons or forks. The length of 15 forks and spoons (which are at
my disposal) varies between 20.8 cm and 21.5 cm. The mean size
of the oval is 1.5 mm x 2.6 mm (for fourteen different pieces of
cutlery), while the mean size of the rectangular box is 2.4 mm x
2.6 mm (for twelve different pieces of cutlery);
Fig.15. The "CC" oval mark in a square box, used between 1862 and 1877.
The two-digit numbers, 80 (1862-1868) or 84 (1868-1877), correspond to
the amount of silver used for the silvering of two dozen of cutlery pieces.
3) The information about the production year (two last
digits) is placed in a rectangular box (Fig.16). The size of
this box varies between 1.3 mm x 1.5 mm and 1.9 mm x 2.2 mm. The
mean size of the rectangular box with two last digits of the
production year is 1.6 mm x 1.8 mm (for fifteen different pieces
Fig.16. The production year marking on
silver-plated Christofle cutlery between 1862 and
4) Finally, since 1865, Christofle adds to the cutlery marks
of the products, made in a collaboration with Halphen, the inscription CHRISTOFLE in
a cartouche (Fig.17). This cartouche
was of two types: rectangular with rounded corners (before 1874)
or purely rectangular (in the period 1874-1877). It should be
emphasized that previously (until c.1860) such inscription was
used for marking the Christofle cutlery made from silver-plated
brass (see above). The appearance of such inscription on
silver-plated Alfénide cutlery probably justifies that to that
moment due to low demand Christofle stopped the production of
cutlery made from silver-plated brass. The length of the
inscription CHRISTOFLE rises slowly from 4.5 x 4.6 mm (in 1865)
to 5.2 x 5.3 mm (in 1868-1873) and further to 7.1 x 7.5 mm (in
Fig.17. The inscription CHRISTOFLE in
rectangular cartouche with rounded corners used
in the period 1862-1874 (above) and in rectangular
one used in the period 1874-1877 (below).
Christofle cutlery marks used in the period 1878-1899 (silver-plated
Since 1878, Christofle produces the silver-plated cutlery,
using its own silver-like metal, called "Métal Blanc" (white
metal). The designation for a base metal is absent. The other
marks are similar to those used just before 1878. We will
describe them, starting from the one most distant from the
1) The "CC" oval mark in the square box (Fig.18) is similar to
the one used before 1878. The amount of silver used for the
silvering of two dozen of pieces is 84 grams. The length of 3
forks and spoons (in my possession) varies between 20.8 cm and
21.3 cm. The size of the oval is about 1.5 mm x 2.6 mm, while
the size of the rectangular box is around 2.5 mm x 2.6 mm;
Fig.18. The "CC" oval mark in a square
box, used between 1878 and 1899.
2) The information about the production year (two last
digits) is placed in a rectangular box (Fig.19). The size of
this box varies between 1.4 mm x 1.8 mm and 1.8 mm x 2.0 mm;
Fig.19. The production year marking on
silver-plated Christofle cutlery between 1878 and
3) Finally, we will mention the inscription CHRISTOFLE in rectangular
cartouche (Fig.20). The length of this inscription is 6.0-6.1
Fig.20. The inscription CHRISTOFLE in
rectangular cartouche used on silver-plated
Christofle cutlery between 1878 and 1899.
Halphen cutlery marks used in the period 1877-1888.
After Christofle had broken its relations with Halphen
company, which was guided by Charles Halphen's widow, the latter
started to produce high-quality silver-plated cutlery under
their own marks. The structure and disposition of these marks
follow the structure and disposition of the ones used during the
Christofle/Halphen cooperation in c.1855-1877. We will describe
them, starting from the one most distant from the handle:
1) The rectangular box with the inscription ALFÉNIDE in two
lines (Fig.21) was used for the designation of the base metal.
The mean size of the box is 1.7 mm x 2.2 mm (for seven different
pieces of cutlery);
Fig.21. The rectangular box with the inscription
ALFÉNIDE, used by
Halphen company between 1877 and 1888. Note two
writing the fourth letter in the inscription, the
second one is rarer.
2) The famous goat's mark of Halphen (Fig.22) represents a
goat's head in the rhombus with the initials "C" and "H"
(Charles Halphen) from the left and right sides and number 84
under the head. The number 84 means that the amount of silver
used for the silvering of two dozen pieces is 84 grams. The length
of 7 forks and spoons (at my disposal) varies between 20.8 cm
and 21.5 cm. The rhombus is placed inside the rectangular box.
The mean size of the rectangular box is 2.1 mm x 2.5 mm (for six
different pieces of cutlery);
Fig.22. The famous Halphen goat's
mark used between 1877 and 1888.
3) The information about the production year (two last
digits) is placed in a rectangular box (Fig.23). The mean size
of the rectangular box with two last digits of the production
year is 1.5 mm x 2.0 mm (for seven different pieces of cutlery);
Fig.23. The production year marking on
silver-plated Halphen cutlery between 1877 and 1888.
4) Finally, we will consider the inscription HALPHEN in rectangular cartouche
(Fig.24). The length of this inscription is 6.4-7.0 mm.
Fig.24. The inscription HALPHEN in rectangular
cartouche used on silver-plated
HALPHEN cutlery between 1877 and 1888.
Gombault-Desclercs cutlery marks used in the period
Simultaneously with the cutlery issued by Veuve Charles
Halphen company, the Gombault-Desclercs division of the same
company produced silver-plated cutlery with their own marks.
Contrary to all previously described marks, these marks were put
on the oval part of a spoon or on the pronged part of a fork
(Fig.25). Interestingly, Christofle started to use similar
marking on his cutlery much later (after 1931).
Fig.25. Disposition of Gombault-Desclercs marks
on a fork.
There were only two marks on Gombault-Desclercs cutlery:
1) The inscription GOMBAULT in rectangular cartouche (Fig.26)
indicates a base metal. The length of the inscription varies
between 4.7 mm and 4.9 mm;
Fig.26. The inscription GOMBAULT in a purely
2) The Desclercs mark for silver-plating (Fig.27) consists
of a kind of caduceus (Rod of Hermes) between the two initials
"D" and "L" , placed in rectangular box, the size of the latter
varies between 2.1 mm x 2.2 mm and 2.2 mm x 2.2 mm. On this mark
there is also the number 72, which refers to the amount of
silver used for the silvering of two dozen pieces. The length of 4
forks and spoons (at my disposal) varies between 20.8 cm and
21.5 cm. To the best of my knowledge, this mark was never
Fig.27. The Desclercs mark for silver-plating
used between 1877 and 1888.
Manufacture de L'Alfenide cutlery marks used in the period
Manufacture de L'Alfenide was a branch of the Christofle
firm. However, Christofle tried to hide this fact, and, hence,
there is no mentioning of Christofle on the marks of cutlery
used by the Manufacture de L'Alfénide. Opposite, these marks are
similar to those used by Veuve Charles Halphen with some
insignificant changes. We will describe them, starting from the
one most distant from the handle:
1) The rectangular box with the designation of the base metal
ALFÉNIDE in two lines (Fig.28), is identical to that used by
Veuve Charles Halphen (Fig.21). The mean size of the box is 1.8
mm x 2.1 mm (for five different pieces of cutlery);
Fig.28. The rectangular box with the inscription
used by Manufacture de L'Alfénide between 1888 and
2) The Halphen goat's mark was slightly transformed
(Fig.29). The initials "C" and "H" have been eliminated, instead
of them from the left and right sides the digits "8" and "4"
were set. The resulting number 84 meant that for the silvering
of twenty four spoons (or forks) 84 grams of silver was needed. The
length of 5 forks and spoons (at my disposal) varies between
21.1 cm and 21.8 cm. The rhombus with goat's head is placed
inside the rectangular box, which is lined unlike the Halphen's
goat mark (cf. Fig.22). The mean size of the rectangular box is
2.1 mm x 2.3 mm (for five different pieces of cutlery);
Fig.29. The goat's mark used by Manufacture
de L'Alfénide between 1888 and 1931.
3) The information about the production year is absent. The
inscription HALPHEN is given as before in rectangular cartouche
(Fig.30). The length of this inscription is 5.8 - 5.9 mm.
Fig.30. The inscription HALPHEN used by
Manufacture de L'Alfénide between 1888 and 1931.
From the discussed material it follows that despite rather
complicated relations between Christofle and its partners, the
marks of silver-plated cutlery of these five companies are
related to each other and should be considered together. I
believe that such studies will allow us to understand better the
marking of other French silversmith companies in the XIX century
and thus could be useful for future research in this area of art
The author is grateful to his wife Danielle for her continuous
 Marc de Ferrière, Christofle: 150 ans d'Art et de Rève.
Dossier de l'Art, No.2, pp.3-73 (1991), in French.
 David N. Nikogosyan, Christofle: History and Marks, Silver
Magazine, vol.44, No.1, pp.28-35 (2012).
 Auguste Luchet, Le Surtout de la Reine Isabelle, Le Monde
Illustré, vol.12, No.606, p.331 (1868), in French.
 David Allan, French Silver Cutlery of XIXth Century,
Editions Faton, Dijon, 2007, pp.1-430.
 Data base of French Ministery of Culture, devoted to
registered trade marks of French Jewellery firms,
 Charles Christofle & Co., Orfévrerie Argentée et D'Argent,
Paris, 1862, in French.
 Manufacture de L'Alfénide, Tarif Général, Paris, 1891.
 David N. Nikogosyan, Gallia and its Predecessors: History
and Marks, Silver Magazine, vol.45, No.5, pp.32-40 (2013).
 David N. Nikogosyan: Marks of European Silver Plate: VII.
Gallia, Alfenide/Christofle, France (2010),
Dr. David N. Nikogosyan
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