ASCAS Association of Small Collectors of Antique Silver
ASSOCIATION OF SMALL COLLECTORS OF ANTIQUE SILVER
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by Dr. David N. Nikogosyan, Bonn, Germany
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MARKS OF EUROPEAN SILVER PLATE: XIV.
WÜRTTEMBERGISCHE METALLWARENFABRIK (WMF)
Marks of Hollow Ware and Trays.

WMF is the abbreviation for Württembergische Metallwarenfabrik, which in English means Wurtemberg Metalware Factory. The history of this foundry is well documented [1,2,3]. WMF was created in 1880 after the successful merger of two Wurtemberg foundries, the Geislingen factory belonging to Daniel Straub (Straub & Sohn) and the Esslingen factory of Alfred Ritter (A. Ritter & Co.). The first foundry was commercially more successful, while the second one was using a more advanced technology of galvanic silver deposition, which was first applied in Esslingen by the German chemist Carl Haegele (in 1871), the brother-in-law of Alfred Ritter. In 1881, after the retirement of Daniel Straub, Carl Haegele became the managing director of WMF. In the same year the Esslingen factory was dismantled and its equipment was incorporated into the Geislingen foundry. During the next thirty years WMF experienced a period of rapid expansion, which lasted until the beginning of the World War in 1914.

In 1886, WMF bought the Russian company of Roman Plewkiewicz (Roman Plewkiewicz & Co.) in Warsaw to establish itself on the huge Russian market. This WMF branch was mostly importing the base-metal items from Geislingen, performing silver-plating and then selling them in Russia under their own marks, see my recent article in ASCAS Newsletter [4]. In 1897, WMF acquired the Göppingen factory of nickel-plated wares (Metallwarenfabrik Schauffler & Safft), situated near Stutgart in Württemberg, and then the director of this factory, Hans Schauffler, became the next WMF managing director (in 1898) and kept this position for the next seven years, until 1905. The WMF board of directors also moved to Göppingen. In 1900, WMF took control over the Vienna foundry of silver-plated wares, Albert Köhler & Cie. This firm like R. Plewkiewicz company would stay under WMF until 1914 and would also produce items under its own mark. Finally, in 1905, WMF bought the controlling interest of the Cologne firm Orivit A.G., producing the items from tin-based alloys. The export of silver-plated table ware and domestic items continuously grew, which is testified by the publishing of WMF catalogues in three languages. Three consecutive editions of the English WMF catalogue were published in 1900, 1906 and in 1910. In 1914, the number of employees working only at Geislingen factory reaches 3500 and WMF became the largest industry producer in whole Wurtemberg.

A view of Geislingen factory taken from the 1912 WMF headed form.

The WMF silver-plated production made in around 1900-1910 is extremely popular among western antiques collectors. This is because these tableware and household items are considered as the best samples of Art Nouveau style, which is also known as Jugendstil in Germany and Secession in Austro-Hungary. Every year the famous London publisher Dorling Kindersley Ltd. issues an Antique Price Guide, which reflects the current situation on the British antique market. Inside this book two whole pages are devoted to silver-plated WMF items. At the same time, other renowned European producers of silver plate, such as Charles Christofle (France), August Wellner Soehne (Germany), Arthur Krupp Berndorf (Austria-Hungary) are not mentioned at all. On Internet ebay auctions up to ten thousands of silver-plated WMF are selling simultaneously. The corresponding prices often reach hundreds of euro or even more. Recently, Antique Collectors' Club published as a reprint the 1906 English WMF catalogue with an extensive introduction written by renowned German art historian Dr. Graham Dry [3]. This luxurious 400 pages edition contains the description of more than two thousand silver-plated objects of tableware and domestic utensils and mentions the price and quality of each item and serves as self-promotion for the best European Art Nouveau silver-plated products.

Early silver-plated Art Nouveau WMF items made in 1887-1903.

My interest in WMF marks originated from a trip to Hungary in 2005. Being in Veszprém, I visited a local antique shop and was attracted by a set of four beautiful Art Nouveau silver-plated tea glass holders. The owner of the shop asked only 40 US dollars for this set and I immediately purchased it. On the bottom of each item there was a three-letter mark "W.M.F." and the model number "345". Returning home, I looked through the full list of WMF marks, given in the above-mentioned reprint edition of the 1906 English WMF catalogue [3], as well as in the monograph of Annette Denhardt [1], and did not find anything similar to the marks on my Hungarian tea glass holders. In both sources it was stated that the main WMF mark, used in 1880-1925, consists of the image of a running ostrich put inside the rhombus with a two-line inscription WMF/G, which is in turn placed in a rectangle or in an arch. Such a discovery made me very upset and after some hesitation I came to the sad conclusion that probably my Hungarian holders are not genuine, or, in the better case, a modern replica.

One of my "Hungarian" tea glass holders.

Whatever happens, it is always for the best! With time I had realized that on ebay auctions there is a great number of silver-plated WMF items with marks similar to those on my Hungarian tea glass holders, that means containing the three-letter inscription "WMF", with or without dots, and in some cases the letters "M" and "F" were joined together. Some of the items were dated by the 1890-1900 period. Later I found similar marks in online publications for silver collectors, e.g., in [5]. The extraordinary situation evolved: some WMF marks exist which are well known to collectors but somehow ignored in the publications made by serious art historians. I decided to investigate this point and soon collected about twenty "unofficial" WMF marks, between them was also the mark found on my "Hungarian" tea glass holders. The photographs of these marks are given below in the list of WMF marks.

Art Nouveau WMF items made in 1897-1903.

I have divided all these "unofficial" marks with WMF letterings into four groups [6]. The marks of the first group (used in 1880-1887) contain the word "WMF" formed of three letters, "W", "M", and "F", with dots in between or without. Sometimes, the letters "M" and "F" are joined together. Such a "merged" style of writing was borrowed from the early marks of Berndorfer Metallwarenfabrik (Berndorf Metalware Factory) or BMF in Austro-Hungary, which were in use in 1870-1880 [7]. The second group (1887-1903) contains the marks with four-letter inscriptions, which are combinations of the word "WMF" plus the following letters: "M" or "B", in such a way notating the base metal used for silvering, that means brass ("M") or tin-containing alloy, so-called Britannia metal ("B"), respectively. It should be noted that all the inscriptions inside the marks from the first and second groups are made with a "sans serif" font. The third group of marks (1897-1903) uses the inscriptions from the second group, which are made with a "serif" font and/or given in a cartouche. Finally, the marks of the fourth group (1897-1903) were specially designed to be used in the case of shortage of available space for marking.

The BMF mark used by Berndorf Metalware Factory in 1870-1880.
AS is the abbreviation of "Alpacca Silber".

It should be emphasized that most of marks inside these four groups exist in two forms, with and without dots (e.g., "W.M.F.M. " and "WMFM"). I suppose that the existence of these two forms relates to two different technologies of silver-plating, applied by WMF in the end of the XIXth century, the old (fusion-based) and new (galvanic) methods of silver deposition (in English literature, "rolled copper" and "electro-plate" technologies). In accordance with that the number of dotted WMF marks increases with the passing of time, which means the prevailing use of the galvanic method with the passage of time.

The dating of each group was made by using dated items from my collection as well as by the presence/absence of certain stylistic details. The correctness of the dating is justified by the fact that most of the items bearing the marks from the first or the second groups were made in pre-Art Nouveau style and, in line with this, were not mentioned at all in the 1906 WMF catalogue. At the same time, the majority of the objects forming the third and the fourth group were described in this catalogue or in the 1901 catalogue of the Roman Plewkiewicz firm [8].

WMF Art Nouveau pieces marked by the first "ostrich mark" (1903-1910).

In 1901-1903, an intermediate WMF mark, containing a one-word inscription "GEISLINGEN", made by a "sans serif" font in a cartouche, was used [3]. However, this mark soon turned out to be unsatisfactory and was replaced by the famous, so-called, ostrich WMF mark. It is widely accepted [2,3], that the appearance of the ostrich image for the WMF mark could be explained by the consonance between the name of one of WMF founders (Straub) and the German name of the ostrich (Strauss). What was much less known (or simply ignored) is that the ostrich mark looks very similar to the goat mark, which was used in 1888-1932 by the famous French foundry "Manufacture de l'Alfenide". This firm also produced very successful Art Nouveau silver-plated items (under the trade name "GALLIA") and, like WMF, often used a tin-containing alloy as a base metal for silvering [9,10].

I suppose that the ostrich WMF mark appeared only around 1903 (and not in 1880 as it is stated in [1,3]). I have in my collection some WMF pieces bearing the ostrich mark and dated 1904, 1907 (twice) and 1910. In addition, I saw a similar WMF piece on the Internet, dated 1909. Therefore, I can conclude that this famous mark was used until 1910.

A famous ostrich mark, used by WMF in 1903-1910 (left), and the goat mark of silvering,
used by "Manufacture de Alfenide" in 1888-1932 (right).

Starting from 1909/1910, together with the main ostrich mark, another two were developed, bearing the image of a running ostrich inserted in a rhombus with a two-line inscription WMF/G, which in turn was placed inside a fully (or partly) dashed arch. The first of these two small-size marks was used to mark export goods made for France. It was introduced in 1909 and used until the beginning of World War I. The second ostrich mark was introduced in 1910 for the internal market and was used until 1920. This supposition is justified by the dated WMF objects collected by me and possessing such a mark; they are dated by 1914, 1916 and 1920.

The ostrich marks, containing the image of ostrich put in rhombus, which is further placed inside a fully-dashed (left) or partly-dashed (right) arch, respectively.

It should be emphasized that ostrich WMF marks are accompanied by numerous additional marks (see below inside the list of WMF marks). Amongst these marks two are abundant; they are associated with the artificial change of colour of silver coating to the grey (mark "OX", so-called, oxidized silver) or very dark (nearly black) grey (mark "AS", so-called, antique silver finish). The reason for such artificial darkening is that the WMF pieces were often issued together with glass inlets (e.g., centrepieces for the table), or were used with the glass (e.g., tea glass holders), and the darkened silver coating goes perfectly with the glass. In connection with this, it is very regretful to realize that many WMF pieces with the darkened silver coating were ruthlessly polished up to a full glitter by ignorant antiques dealers or ebay sellers, effectively "killing" the genuine appearance.

WMF Art Nouveau tee glass holder marked by the second "ostrich mark" (1909-1914).

WMF Art Nouveau sugar bowl marked by the third "ostrich mark" (1910-1920).

From 1920, WMF introduced the new mark for silver-plated items, containing a special 2D combination of three letters, "W", "M", and "F", placed in a rectangle. As I have two WMF items with this mark dated 1922 and 1925, I suppose that this new mark was used until the mid-twenties. A similar 2D combination of the same letters, placed in a partly dashed arch, was used for the next ten years. Finally, the same 2D combination of three letters, "W", "M", and "F", but placed in an "empty" arch, was used in 1935-1945.

WMF marks, containing a 2D combination of three letters, "W", "M", and "F", placed in
a rectangle (left); in a partly dashed arch (center), and in an "empty" (right) arch. These marks were used in
1920-1925, 1925-1935, and 1935-1945, respectively.

In the second half of the Twenties, to mark highly-artistic products, designed in fashionable Art Deco style, WMF reintroduced the image of a running ostrich in a rhombus. This ostrich mark differs significantly from other ostrich marks used before 1920. Firstly, there is an absence of a rectangle or an arch. Secondly, the size of the rhombus is much larger. Thirdly, the inscription of "WMF"/"G" under the ostrich disappeared. Fourthly, the tail of the Art-Deco ostrich is either hidden, or turned up in comparison with the tail of the Art Nouveau ostrich (Mark 6 in the list of WMF marks given below), which is always turned down.

A decorative WMF tray made in Art Deco style.

Art Deco WMF marks, containing the image of the running ostrich in a rhombus and used in
c.1925-c.1932.

From 1925, the marking of silver-plated WMF hollow ware items became rather poor. Additional marks were not used at all. Even the amount of silver used for plating was not designated. Therefore, it is rather difficult to distinguish silver-plated and metal WMF hollow ware products issued between 1925 and 1945. This occured partly as a consequence of World Economic Crisis and the following disappearance of silver-plated tableware fashion. Nevertheless, the WMF foundry focussed its efforts on other products, e.g., stainless steel tableware, and survived this hard time. The production of WMF silver-plated tableware continued until at least 1970.

All photographs in text were made by David N. Nikogosyan. The photographed items are from private collection of David N. Nikogosyan, Bonn, Germany.

LITERATURE

[1] Annette Denhardt. Das Metallwarendesign der Württembergischen Metallwarenfabrik (WMF) zwischen 1900 und 1930. Historismus – Jugendstil – Art Deco. (Lit Verlag, Münster, 1993), pp.1-231 [in German].
[2] Dedo von Kerssenbrock-Krosigk and Claudia Kanowski, Modern Art of Metallwork (Berlin: Bröhan Museum, 2001), pp.352-365.
[3] Art Nouveau Domestic Metalwork from Württembergische Metallwaren Fabrik, Reprint of 1906 Catalogue, Second Edition (Antique Collectors' Club Ltd., Woodbridge, 2008), pp.1-392.
[4] David N. Nikogosyan. Hollow Ware Marks of Warsaw Silver Plate Factories Operated in the Russian Empire: Bros. Henneberg, Bros. Buch, Wola Factory, Plewkiewicz & Schiffers. http://www.ascasonline.org/articoloDICEM165.html, 2012.
[5] Giorgio Busetto. A Small Collection of Antique Silver and Objects of Vertu. http://www.silvercollection.it/, 2012
[6] David N. Nikogosyan. Early WMF Silver Plate Marks. Silver Magazine, Vol.43, No.1, pp.18-20 (2011)
[7] Ingrid Haslinger, David N. Nikogosyan. Early Marks of Berndorf Metalware Factory. Silver Magazine, Vol.42, No.1, pp.12-15 (2010)
[8] Joanna Paprocka-Gajek. Platery Warszawskie. Katalogi i Cenniki Firmowe. Plyta CD. Warszawa: Muzeum Palac w Wilanowie, 2010, pp.1-375 [in Polish]. English translation: Silver Plated Items produced in Warsaw. 28 Catalogues and Price Lists of 8 Warsaw Silver Plate Companies on a CD disc.
[9] David N. Nikogosyan. Marks of European Silver Plate: VII. Gallia, Alfenide/Christofle, France. http://www.ascasonline.org/windowOTTOB77.html, 2010
[10] David N. Nikogosyan. Gallia and its Predecessors: History and Marks. Silver Magazine, Vol.45, No.5, pp.32-40 (2013)  

List of WMF Hollow Ware & Tray Marks

For each mark, first the main inscription/image is given, then the full images together with the secondary markings are presented, after that each secondary marking is illustrated separately and explained.

PERIOD & MARK
COMMENT
1
































 
1880 - c.1887
WMF mark 1880 - c.1887
WMF mark 1880 - c.1887
WMF mark 1880 - c.1887
WMF mark 1880 - c.1887
WMF mark 1880 - c.1887
WMF mark 1880 - c.1887

The first group of WMF marks contains the inscription composed of three letters, "W", "M", and "F", sometimes the letters "M" and "F" are joined together. All inscriptions are made with a "sans serif" font. In some cases, the dots inside the inscription and after it are also present. The possible reason for that is discussed above. The length of "WMF" inscriptions varies in the range 3.1-4.0 mm. Some marks from this group are rare/very rare.




























 

 
WMF mark 1880 - c.1887
WMF mark 1880 - c.1887
WMF mark 1880 - c.1887

A full WMF mark image for the first group contains the volume designation in litres (1 litre corresponds to 1000 cm3). Note a comma which is used for the volume designation. Some secondary markings are used as well. The fraction "I/0" means the normal thickness of silver deposited onto the surface of the base metal (usually, on brass). The two-letter inscription "as" means artificial darkening of the silver surface to a nearly black colour, the so-called "antique silver finish".


























 

2













































 
c.1887 - c.1903
WMF mark c.1887 - c.1903
WMF mark c.1887 - c.1903
WMF mark c.1887 - c.1903
WMF mark c.1887 - c.1903
WMF mark c.1887 - c.1903
WMF mark c.1887 - c.1903
WMF mark c.1887 - c.1903
WMF mark c.1887 - c.1903

The second group of WMF marks contains the marks with four-letter letterings, with dots or without, which are the combinations of the word "WMF" with the following letters: "M" or "B". Such a way of marking allows the designation of the base metal used for silvering, i.e., brass ("M") or tin-containing alloy, so-called Britannia metal ("B"), respectively. All inscriptions are made with a "sans serif" font. The length of four-letter inscriptions varies in the range 3.9-5.5 mm. Some marks from this group are rare/very rare.









































 

 
WMF mark c.1887 - c.1903
WMF mark c.1887 - c.1903
WMF mark c.1887 - c.1903
WMF mark c.1887 - c.1903
WMF mark c.1887 - c.1903
WMF mark c.1887 - c.1903

A full WMF mark image for the second group contains the volume designation in litres. Note the use of a fraction for the designation. Some secondary markings are used as well, the meaning of "I/0" and "as" designations is explained above. The two-letter inscription "ox" ("oxydiert" in German, "oxidized" in English) means artificial darkening of the silver surface to a grey colour.
















































 

3
























 
c.1897 - c.1903
WMF mark c.1897 - c.1903
WMF mark c.1897 - c.1903
WMF mark c.1897 - c.1903
WMF mark c.1897 - c.1903

The third group of WMF marks contains the marks, which are similar to that in the first or second group. The difference is that they are made with a "serif" font and, in addition, all the letterings are put in a cartouche. For the pieces, made of silver-plated tin-based alloy, the four-letter inscriptions were used. Contrary to that, the pieces made of silver-plated brass or Alpacca (Neusilber) were marked by three-letter inscriptions from the first group (without "joined" letters). In the case of Alpacca (Neusilber) base, an additional two-letter inscription "NS" (nickel silver) was added. Generally, in this period the number of main marks became noticeably smaller. Besides, nearly all of them were dotted. The length of four-letter inscriptions varies in the range 4.7-5.5 mm. The length of three-letter inscriptions varies in the range 4.6-6.2 mm. There are other varieties from this group which are not shown here, but exist in the literature, e.g., "W.M.F.B". Some marks from this group are rare.
















 

 
WMF mark c. 1885 - c.1895
WMF mark c. 1885 - c.1895
WMF mark c. 1885 - c.1895
WMF mark c. 1885 - c.1895
WMF mark c. 1885 - c.1895
WMF mark c. 1885 - c.1895
WMF mark c. 1885 - c.1895
WMF mark c. 1885 - c.1895
WMF mark c. 1885 - c.1895
WMF mark c. 1885 - c.1895
WMF mark c. 1885 - c.1895
WMF mark c. 1885 - c.1895
WMF mark c. 1885 - c.1895
WMF mark c. 1885 - c.1895

The full WMF mark image for the third group applies a fraction for the volume designation. The numerous secondary markings are in use. The fraction "I/0" means the normal thickness of silver deposited onto the surface of the base metal. Sometimes, it could be put inside a cartouche. The "O" letter put in a rhombus means a doubled thickness of plated silver layer. The two-letter inscription "NS" in a cartouche means the use of nickel silver (Alpacca) as a base metal. The two-letter inscription "as" in a cartouche means artificial darkening of the silver surface to a nearly black colour, the so-called "antique silver finish". The two-letter inscription "EP" in a cartouche is a shortening of "Electro Plate", that means the galvanic silver deposition. Such shortening was used for pieces exported to the UK or USA. The double-letter inscription "gg" is an abbreviation of the German expression "ganz vergoldet", which means "entirely gilded". Finally, there is also the so-called "antler mark", taken from the Wurtemberg Coat of Arms and used mostly on nickel silver flatware. The size of the antler cartouche is about 1.1 mm x 2.8 mm.


































































































 

4












 
c.1897 - c.1903
WMF mark c.1895 - c.1902
WMF mark c.1895 - c.1902

The small-size marks from the fourth group are made by a "sans serif" font. The length of small three-letter inscriptions varies in the range 4.5-4.8 mm. In this case secondary marks were never used.











 

5




 
c.1901 - c.1903
WMF markc.1901 - c.1903

A rather rare special mark for Alpacca-based silver-plated products, which was used for a short time. It consists of the one-word inscription "GEISLINGEN", made by a "sans serif" font in a cartouche, of 6.7 mm length. Rare.


 

 
WMF mark c.1901 - c.1903
WMF mark c.1901 - c.1903
WMF mark c.1901 - c.1903
WMF mark c.1901 - c.1903

A full mark for this pattern includes a comma in the volume designation (cf. the full mark for the first group). Besides, there is a rectangle with digits, which correspond to the amount of silver (in grams) used for plating. The rectangle with 4-digit "1901" inscription corresponds to the year of issue.




























 

6













 
c.1903 - c.1910
WMF mark c.1903 - c.1910

The famous ostrich mark consists of the image of a running ostrich put inside the rhombus with a two-line inscription WMF/G (G is for Geislingen), which is in turn placed in a dashed rectangle. The size of the rectangle varies between 3.6 mm x 4.2 mm and 3.9 mm x 4.7 mm. A widespread mark, though it is rather difficult to find one in perfect condition.










 

 
WMF mark c.1902 - c.1920
WMF mark c.1902 - c.1920
WMF mark c.1902 - c.1920
WMF mark c.1902 - c.1920
WMF mark c.1902 - c.1920
WMF mark c.1902 - c.1920
WMF mark c.1902 - c.1920
WMF mark c.1902 - c.1920
WMF mark c.1902 - c.1920

The full mark uses numerous secondary markings, all applied in a cartouche. The fraction "I/0" means the normal thickness of silver deposited onto the surface of the base metal. The one-letter inscription "B" means the use of Britannia metal (tin-based alloy) as a base metal for silvering. The two-letter inscription "MB" means a combined use of two base metals: brass (M refers to brass) and Britannia metal (B). The two-letter inscription "MB" means a combined use of both brass (M) and Britannia metal (B) as base metals. The two-letter inscription "OX" ("oxydiert" in German, "oxidized" in English) means artificial darkening of the silver surface to a grey colour. The two-letter inscription "as" means artificial darkening of the silver surface to a nearly black colour, the so-called "antique silver finish".



























































 

7












 
c.1909 - c.1914
WMF mark c.1909 - c.1914

This ostrich mark was developed for export goods sent to France. It bears the image of a running ostrich inserted in the rhombus with a two-line inscription WMF/G, which in turn was placed inside a fully-dashed arch. The size of the arch varies between 1.4 mm x 1.8 mm and 2.1 mm x 3.0 mm. Rather rare.









 

 
WMF mark c.1909 - c.1914
WMF mark c.1909 - c.1914
WMF mark c.1909 - c.1914
The full mark image includes few secondary markings described above.





























 












 
WMF mark c.1909 - c.1914

If there is only a main mark presented without any silvering designation, then the object contains no silver. The size of the arch is 3.7 mm x 5.2 mm (measured on the piece from my collection).













 

8











































 
c.1910 - c.1920
WMF mark c.c.1910 - c.1920
WMF mark c.1910 - c.1920

This small-size ostrich mark bears the image of a running ostrich put inside the rhombus with a two-line inscription WMF/G, which in turn is placed inside a partly-dashed arch. The size of arch varies between 1.2 mm x 1.8 mm and 2.2 mm x 3.5 mm. This mark is a widespread one. A rarer (and more recent) variety with the ostrich, making a larger step, exists.









































 

 
WMF mark c.c.1910 - c.1920
WMF mark c.c.1910 - c.1920
WMF mark c.c.1910 - c.1920
WMF mark c.c.1910 - c.1920
WMF mark c.c.1910 - c.1920
WMF mark c.c.1910 - c.1920
WMF mark c.c.1910 - c.1920
WMF mark c.c.1910 - c.1920
WMF mark c.c.1910 - c.1920
WMF mark c.c.1910 - c.1920
WMF mark c.c.1910 - c.1920
WMF mark c.c.1910 - c.1920
WMF mark c.c.1910 - c.1920
WMF mark c.c.1910 - c.1920
WMF mark c.c.1910 - c.1920
WMF mark c.c.1910 - c.1920
WMF mark c.c.1910 - c.1920

The full mark image contains the secondary markings, some of them are new. The two-letter inscription "BM" refers probably a combined use of two base metals: Britannia metal (B) and brass (M refers to Messing, German term for brass). The one-word inscription "ALPACCA" refers to the use of nickel silver (Alpacca or Neusilber) as a base metal. The one-letter inscription "K" refers to the use of copper (in German Kupfer) as a base metal for silver deposition. The one-letter inscription "g" means "vergoldet" in German or "gilt" in English. The meaning of the one-letter inscription "f" is yet unclear. The six-petal rosette probably means "Special Order" or "Special Issue".















































































































































 















 
WMF mark c.1910 - c.1920

If there is only a main mark presented without any silvering designation, then the object contains no silver. The size of the arch is 2.2 mm x 3.1 mm (measured on the piece from my collection). Rather rare.













 

9














 
c.1920 - c.1925
WMF mark c.1920 - c.1925

The next WMF mark contains a 2D combination of three letters, "W", "M", and "F", put in a rectangle. The size of the rectangle is 2.1 mm x 2.4 mm. Rather rare.













 

 
WMF mark c.1920 - c.1925
WMF mark c.1920 - c.1925
WMF mark c.1920 - c.1925
WMF mark c.1920 - c.1925
WMF mark c.1920 - c.1925

The full mark image contains the volume designation, a rectangle with digits, which corresponds to the amount of silver (in grams) used for plating, and a few secondary markings, described above.












































 

10


























 
c.1925 - c.1928
WMF mark c.1925 - c.1928
WMF mark c.1925 - c.1928

The Art Deco WMF mark, containing the image of the running ostrich in a rhombus, exists in two versions, which differ in the outlook of the ostrich tail and in size. In first version with the round tail, the size of the rhombus is about 4.7 mm x 5.6 mm, while in the second one, with the ostrich tail turned up, the rhombus is larger, i.e., 7.3 mm x 9.0 mm. No secondary markings were found for this mark.























 

11














 
c.1925 - c.1935
WMF mark c.1925 - c.1935

The next WMF mark contains the same 2D combination of three letters, "W", "M", and "F", put in a partly-dashed arch. The size of the arch varies between 2.3 mm x 3.9 mm and 2.2 mm x 4.0 mm. Rather rare.












 

 
WMF mark c.1925 - c.1935

The full mark image contains the volume designation in a cartouche.









 

12



















 
c.1935 - c.1945
WMF mark c.1935 - c.1945

The next WMF mark contains the famous 2D combination of three letters, "W", "M", and "F", placed in an empty arch. The size of the arch varies between 1.7 mm x 2.5 mm and 2.2 mm x 3.3 mm. No secondary markings were mentioned for this mark. Rather rare.

















 


Dr. David N. Nikogosyan
- 2013 (revised in 2016) -